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Crypto Curr VideoCRYPTO FOR DUMMIES
You could say that cryptocurrencies are all about confirmation. As long as a transaction is unconfirmed, it is pending and can be forged.
When a transaction is confirmed, it is set in stone. Only miners can confirm transactions. This is their job in a cryptocurrency-network.
They take transactions, stamp them as legit and spread them in the network. After a transaction is confirmed by a miner, every node has to add it to its database.
It has become part of the blockchain. For this job, the miners get rewarded with a token of the cryptocurrency, for example with Bitcoins.
Principally everybody can be a miner. Since a decentralized network has no authority to delegate this task, a cryptocurrency needs some kind of mechanism to prevent one ruling party from abusing it.
Imagine someone creates thousands of peers and spreads forged transactions. The system would break immediately. So, Satoshi set the rule that the miners need to invest some work of their computers to qualify for this task.
In fact, they have to find a hash — a product of a cryptographic function — that connects the new block with its predecessor.
This is called the Proof-of-Work. After finding a solution, a miner can build a block and add it to the blockchain. As an incentive, he has the right to add a so-called coinbase transaction that gives him a specific number of Bitcoins.
This is the only way to create valid Bitcoins. This is part of the consensus no peer in the network can break.
If you really think about it, Bitcoin, as a decentralized network of peers that keep a consensus about accounts and balances, is more a currency than the numbers you see in your bank account.
Basically, cryptocurrencies are entries about token in decentralized consensus-databases. Cryptocurrencies are built on cryptography. They are not secured by people or by trust, but by math.
It is more probable that an asteroid falls on your house than that a bitcoin address is compromised. Describing the properties of cryptocurrencies we need to separate between transactional and monetary properties.
While most cryptocurrencies share a common set of properties, they are not carved in stone. By nobody. And nobody means nobody. Not you, not your bank, not the president of the United States, not Satoshi, not your miner.
If you send money, you send it. No one can help you, if you sent your funds to a scammer or if a hacker stole them from your computer.
There is no safety net. You receive Bitcoins on so-called addresses, which are randomly seeming chains of around 30 characters.
While it is usually possible to analyze the transaction flow, it is not necessarily possible to connect the real-world identity of users with those addresses.
Since they happen in a global network of computers they are completely indifferent of your physical location.
Only the owner of the private key can send cryptocurrency. Strong cryptography and the magic of big numbers make it impossible to break this scheme.
A Bitcoin address is more secure than Fort Knox. After you installed it, you can receive and send Bitcoins or other cryptocurrencies.
No one can prevent you. There is no gatekeeper. In Bitcoin, the supply decreases in time and will reach its final number sometime around the year All cryptocurrencies control the supply of the token by a schedule written in the code.
This means the monetary supply of a cryptocurrency in every given moment in the future can roughly be calculated today. There is no surprise.
To understand the revolutionary impact of cryptocurrencies you need to consider both properties. Bitcoin as a permissionless, irreversible, and pseudonymous means of payment is an attack on the control of banks and governments over the monetary transactions of their citizens.
As money with a limited, controlled supply that is not changeable by a government, a bank or any other central institution, cryptocurrencies attack the scope of the monetary policy.
They take away the control central banks take on inflation or deflation by manipulating the monetary supply.
Sometimes it feels more like religion than technology. Cryptocurrencies are digital gold. Sound money that is secure from political influence.
Money promises to preserve and increase its value over time. Cryptocurrencies are also a fast and comfortable means of payment with a worldwide scope, and they are private and anonymous enough to serve as a means of payment for black markets and any other outlawed economic activity.
But while cryptocurrencies are more used for payment, its use as a means of speculation and a store of value dwarfs the payment aspects. Cryptocurrencies gave birth to an incredibly dynamic, fast-growing market for investors and speculators.
Exchanges like Okcoin, Poloniex or shapeshift enable the trade of hundreds of cryptocurrencies. Their daily trade volume exceeds that of major European stock exchanges.
In this rich ecosystem of coins and token, you experience extreme volatility. While Bitcoin remains by far the most famous cryptocurrency and most other cryptocurrencies have zero non-speculative impact, investors and users should keep an eye on several cryptocurrencies.
Here we present the most popular cryptocurrencies of today. The one and only, the first and most famous cryptocurrency.
Bitcoin serves as a digital gold standard in the whole cryptocurrency-industry, is used as a global means of payment and is the de-facto currency of cyber-crime like darknet markets or ransomware.
There is not much more to say — Bitcoin is here to stay. The brainchild of young crypto-genius Vitalik Buterin has ascended to the second place in the hierarchy of cryptocurrencies.
Other than Bitcoin its blockchain does not only validate a set of accounts and balances but of so-called states. This means that ethereum can not only process transactions but complex contracts and programs.
This flexibility makes Ethereum the perfect instrument for blockchain -application. But it comes at a cost. After the Hack of the DAO — an Ethereum based smart contract — the developers decided to do a hard fork without consensus, which resulted in the emerge of Ethereum Classic.
This makes ethereum more a family of cryptocurrencies than a single currency. Ripple, unlike Bitcoin and ethereum , has no mining since all the coins are already pre-mined.
Ripple has found immense value in the financial space as a lot of banks have joined the Ripple network. Litecoin was one of the first cryptocurrencies after Bitcoin and tagged as the silver to the digital gold bitcoin.
Faster than bitcoin, with a larger amount of token and a new mining algorithm, Litecoin was a real innovation, perfectly tailored to be the smaller brother of bitcoin.
Examples are Dogecoin or Feathercoin. While Litecoin failed to find a real use case and lost its second place after bitcoin, it is still actively developed and traded and is hoarded as a backup if Bitcoin fails.
Monero is the most prominent example of the CryptoNight algorithm. This algorithm was invented to add the privacy features Bitcoin is missing.
If you use Bitcoin, every transaction is documented in the blockchain and the trail of transactions can be followed. With the introduction of a concept called ring-signatures, the CryptoNight algorithm was able to cut through that trail.
The first implementation of CryptoNight, Bytecoin, was heavily premined and thus rejected by the community. Monero was the first non-premined clone of bytecoin and raised a lot of awareness.
There are several other incarnations of cryptonote with their own little improvements, but none of it did ever achieve the same popularity as Monero.
This resulted in a steady increase in the price, while the actual usage of Monero seems to remain disappointingly small.
Besides those, there are hundreds of cryptocurrencies of several families. Most of them are nothing more than attempts to reach investors and quickly make money, but a lot of them promise playgrounds to test innovations in cryptocurrency-technology.
The market of cryptocurrencies is fast and wild. Nearly every day new cryptocurrencies emerge, old die, early adopters get wealthy and investors lose money.
Every cryptocurrency comes with a promise, mostly a big story to turn the world around. Few survive the first months, and most are pumped and dumped by speculators and live on as zombie coins until the last bagholder loses hope ever to see a return on his investment.
Markets are dirty. This is already happening. People all over the world buy Bitcoin to protect themselves against the devaluation of their national currency.
Mostly in Asia, a vivid market for Bitcoin remittance has emerged, and the Bitcoin using darknets of cybercrime are flourishing.
More and more companies discover the power of Smart Contracts or token on Ethereum, the first real-world application of blockchain technologies emerge.
Stephanie Yang of The Wall Street Journal defined altcoins as "alternative digital currencies,"  while Paul Vigna, also of The Wall Street Journal , described altcoins as alternative versions of bitcoin.
A blockchain account can provide functions other than making payments, for example in decentralized applications or smart contracts. In this case, the units or coins are sometimes referred to as crypto tokens or cryptotokens.
Decentralized cryptocurrency is produced by the entire cryptocurrency system collectively, at a rate which is defined when the system is created and which is publicly known.
In centralized banking and economic systems such as the Federal Reserve System , corporate boards or governments control the supply of currency by printing units of fiat money or demanding additions to digital banking ledgers.
In the case of decentralized cryptocurrency, companies or governments cannot produce new units, and have not so far provided backing for other firms, banks or corporate entities which hold asset value measured in it.
The underlying technical system upon which decentralized cryptocurrencies are based was created by the group or individual known as Satoshi Nakamoto.
As of May [update] , over 1, cryptocurrency specifications existed. Most cryptocurrencies are designed to gradually decrease production of that currency, placing a cap on the total amount of that currency that will ever be in circulation.
The validity of each cryptocurrency's coins is provided by a blockchain. A blockchain is a continuously growing list of records , called blocks , which are linked and secured using cryptography.
It is "an open, distributed ledger that can record transactions between two parties efficiently and in a verifiable and permanent way".
Once recorded, the data in any given block cannot be altered retroactively without the alteration of all subsequent blocks, which requires collusion of the network majority.
Blockchains are secure by design and are an example of a distributed computing system with high Byzantine fault tolerance. Decentralized consensus has therefore been achieved with a blockchain.
Cryptocurrencies use various timestamping schemes to "prove" the validity of transactions added to the blockchain ledger without the need for a trusted third party.
The first timestamping scheme invented was the proof-of-work scheme. The most widely used proof-of-work schemes are based on SHA and scrypt.
The proof-of-stake is a method of securing a cryptocurrency network and achieving distributed consensus through requesting users to show ownership of a certain amount of currency.
It is different from proof-of-work systems that run difficult hashing algorithms to validate electronic transactions.
The scheme is largely dependent on the coin, and there's currently no standard form of it. Some cryptocurrencies use a combined proof-of-work and proof-of-stake scheme.
In cryptocurrency networks, mining is a validation of transactions. For this effort, successful miners obtain new cryptocurrency as a reward. The reward decreases transaction fees by creating a complementary incentive to contribute to the processing power of the network.
Thus the value of the currency obtained for finding a hash often does not justify the amount of money spent on setting up the machines, the cooling facilities to overcome the heat they produce, and the electricity required to run them.
Some miners pool resources , sharing their processing power over a network to split the reward equally, according to the amount of work they contributed to the probability of finding a block.
A "share" is awarded to members of the mining pool who present a valid partial proof-of-work. Some Chinese miners have since relocated to Canada.
In March , the city of Plattsburgh in upstate New York put an month moratorium on all cryptocurrency mining in an effort to preserve natural resources and the "character and direction" of the city.
An increase in cryptocurrency mining increased the demand for graphics cards GPU in Miners regularly buy up the entire stock of new GPU's as soon as they are available.
Nvidia has asked retailers to do what they can when it comes to selling GPUs to gamers instead of miners. A cryptocurrency wallet stores the public and private "keys" or "addresses" which can be used to receive or spend the cryptocurrency.
With the private key, it is possible to write in the public ledger, effectively spending the associated cryptocurrency.
With the public key, it is possible for others to send currency to the wallet. Bitcoin is pseudonymous rather than anonymous in that the cryptocurrency within a wallet is not tied to people, but rather to one or more specific keys or "addresses".
Still, cryptocurrency exchanges are often required by law to collect the personal information of their users. Additions such as Zerocoin , Zerocash and CryptoNote have been suggested, which would allow for additional anonymity and fungibility.
Most cryptocurrency tokens are fungible and interchangeable. However, unique non-fungible tokens also exist. Such tokens can serve as assets in games like CryptoKitties.
Cryptocurrencies are used primarily outside existing banking and governmental institutions and are exchanged over the Internet.
Proof-of-work cryptocurrencies, such as bitcoin, offer block rewards incentives for miners. There has been an implicit belief that whether miners are paid by block rewards or transaction fees does not affect the security of the blockchain, but a study suggests that this may not be the case under certain circumstances.
The rewards paid to miners increase the supply of the cryptocurrency. By making sure that verifying transactions is a costly business, the integrity of the network can be preserved as long as benevolent nodes control a majority of computing power.
The verification algorithm requires a lot of processing power, and thus electricity in order to make verification costly enough to accurately validate public blockchain.
Not only do miners have to factor in the costs associated with expensive equipment necessary to stand a chance of solving a hash problem, they further must consider the significant amount of electrical power in search of the solution.
Generally, the block rewards outweigh electricity and equipment costs, but this may not always be the case. The current value, not the long-term value, of the cryptocurrency supports the reward scheme to incentivize miners to engage in costly mining activities.
Some sources claim that the current bitcoin design is very inefficient, generating a welfare loss of 1. The main source for this inefficiency is the large mining cost, which is estimated to be Million USD per year.
However, the efficiency of the bitcoin system can be significantly improved by optimizing the rate of coin creation and minimizing transaction fees.
Another potential improvement is to eliminate inefficient mining activities by changing the consensus protocol altogether.
Transaction fees for cryptocurrency depend mainly on the supply of network capacity at the time, versus the demand from the currency holder for a faster transaction.
For ether , transaction fees differ by computational complexity, bandwidth use, and storage needs, while bitcoin transaction fees differ by transaction size and whether the transaction uses SegWit.
Some cryptocurrencies have no transaction fees, and instead rely on client-side proof-of-work as the transaction prioritization and anti-spam mechanism.
Cryptocurrency exchanges allow customers to trade cryptocurrencies for other assets, such as conventional fiat money , or to trade between different digital currencies.
Atomic swaps are a mechanism where one cryptocurrency can be exchanged directly for another cryptocurrency, without the need for a trusted third party such as an exchange.
The kiosk installed in Austin, Texas is similar to bank ATMs but has scanners to read government-issued identification such as a driver's license or a passport to confirm users' identities.
An initial coin offering ICO is a controversial means of raising funds for a new cryptocurrency venture. An ICO may be used by startups with the intention of avoiding regulation.
However, securities regulators in many jurisdictions, including in the U. In an ICO campaign, a percentage of the cryptocurrency usually in the form of "tokens" is sold to early backers of the project in exchange for legal tender or other cryptocurrencies, often bitcoin or ether.
According to PricewaterhouseCoopers , four of the 10 biggest proposed initial coin offerings have used Switzerland as a base, where they are frequently registered as non-profit foundations.
The Swiss regulatory agency FINMA stated that it would take a "balanced approach" to ICO projects and would allow "legitimate innovators to navigate the regulatory landscape and so launch their projects in a way consistent with national laws protecting investors and the integrity of the financial system.
The legal status of cryptocurrencies varies substantially from country to country and is still undefined or changing in many of them. While some countries have explicitly allowed their use and trade,  others have banned or restricted it.
Various government agencies, departments, and courts have classified bitcoin differently. China Central Bank banned the handling of bitcoins by financial institutions in China in early In Russia, though cryptocurrencies are legal, it is illegal to actually purchase goods with any currency other than the Russian ruble.
Cryptocurrencies are a potential tool to evade economic sanctions for example against Russia , Iran , or Venezuela.
Russia also secretly supported Venezuela with the creation of the petro El Petro , a national cryptocurrency initiated by the Maduro government to obtain valuable oil revenues by circumventing US sanctions.
The Japanese platform Line and the Russian platform Yandex have similar prohibitions. This means bitcoin will be subject to capital gains tax.
In July , the IRS started sending letters to cryptocurrency owners warning them to amend their returns and pay taxes.
As the popularity of and demand for online currencies has increased since the inception of bitcoin in ,  so have concerns that such an unregulated person to person global economy that cryptocurrencies offer may become a threat to society.
Concerns abound that altcoins may become tools for anonymous web criminals. Cryptocurrency networks display a lack of regulation that has been criticized as enabling criminals who seek to evade taxes and launder money.
Transactions that occur through the use and exchange of these altcoins are independent from formal banking systems, and therefore can make tax evasion simpler for individuals.
Since charting taxable income is based upon what a recipient reports to the revenue service, it becomes extremely difficult to account for transactions made using existing cryptocurrencies, a mode of exchange that is complex and difficult to track.
Systems of anonymity that most cryptocurrencies offer can also serve as a simpler means to launder money. Rather than laundering money through an intricate net of financial actors and offshore bank accounts, laundering money through altcoins can be achieved through anonymous transactions.
In February the world's largest bitcoin exchange, Mt. Gox , declared bankruptcy. Homero Josh Garza, who founded the cryptocurrency startups GAW Miners and ZenMiner in , acknowledged in a plea agreement that the companies were part of a pyramid scheme , and pleaded guilty to wire fraud in The U.
The SEC's complaint stated that Garza, through his companies, had fraudulently sold "investment contracts representing shares in the profits they claimed would be generated" from mining.
Tether indicates that it is building a new core for its primary wallet in response to the attack in order to prevent the stolen coins from being used.
Properties of cryptocurrencies gave them popularity in applications such as a safe haven in banking crises and means of payment, which also led to the cryptocurrency use in controversial settings in the form of online black markets , such as Silk Road.
In the year following the initial shutdown of Silk Road, the number of prominent dark markets increased from four to twelve, while the amount of drug listings increased from 18, to 32, Darknet markets present challenges in regard to legality.
Cryptocurrency used in dark markets are not clearly or legally classified in almost all parts of the world.
In the U. Cryptocurrencies have been compared to Ponzi schemes , pyramid schemes  and economic bubbles ,  such as housing market bubbles.
While cryptocurrencies are digital currencies that are managed through advanced encryption techniques, many governments have taken a cautious approach toward them, fearing their lack of central control and the effects they could have on financial security.
He cautioned that virtual currencies pose a new challenge to central banks' control over the important functions of monetary and exchange rate policy.
Bitcoin has been criticized by its opponents for the amount of energy that goes into its proof-of-work cryptocurrency mining; cryptocurrency proponents claim it is important to compare the energy spent to the consumption of the traditional financial system.
There are also purely technical elements to consider. For example, technological advancement in cryptocurrencies such as bitcoin result in high up-front costs to miners in the form of specialized hardware and software.
Additionally, cryptocurrency private keys can be permanently lost from local storage due to malware, data loss or the destruction of the physical media.
This prevents the cryptocurrency from being spent, resulting in its effective removal from the markets.
The cryptocurrency community refers to pre-mining, hidden launches, ICO or extreme rewards for the altcoin founders as a deceptive practice.
Paul Krugman , winner of the Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences , has repeated numerous times that it is a bubble that will not last  and links it to Tulip mania.
Fink called bitcoin an 'index of money laundering '. It covers studies of cryptocurrencies and related technologies, and is published by the University of Pittsburgh.
The journal encourages authors to digitally sign a file hash of submitted papers, which will then be timestamped into the bitcoin blockchain. Authors are also asked to include a personal bitcoin address in the first page of their papers.
Cryptocurrencies make tracking donations easier and have the potential to allow donors to see how their money is used financial transparency.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. See also: History of bitcoin. Main article: Blockchain. Main article: Cryptocurrency wallet. Main articles: Fungibility and Non-fungible token.
Main article: Cryptocurrency exchange. Main article: Legality of bitcoin by country or territory. Main article: Cryptocurrency and security.
Main article: Darknet market. Main article: Ledger journal. Archived from the original on 31 August Retrieved 8 August Retrieved 3 May International Business Times.
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Archived from the original on 12 January Archived from the original on 4 October IEEE Spectrum. Archived from the original on 4 June Around the same time, Nick Szabo, a computer scientist who now blogs about law and the history of money, was one of the first to imagine a new digital currency from the ground up.
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